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The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Commission), through its Country Rapporteur for the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Commissioner Solomon Ayele Dersso, the Special Rapporteur on Prisons, Conditions of Detention and Policing in Africa, Commissioner Maria Teresa Manuela, and the Chairperson of the Working Group on Death Penalty, Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Killings and Enforced Disappearances in Africa, Commissioner Ndiamé Gaye, is following with deep concern and growing alarm the reports of excessive use of lethal force against protesters in Nigeria and the resultant loss of lives and injuries.

The Commission expresses its shock about the widely reported human rights violations perpetrated in the context of the use by Nigerian military of live ammunition against protesters in the Lekki Toll Gate area of Lagos on 20 October 2020 resulting in the regrettable and unnecessary killing of an unknown number of people and bodily injury to others. The Commission reiterates its strong condemnation of these killings and the acts of excessive use of force, endangering various rights guaranteed in the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) including the rights to life, bodily integrity, freedom of assembly and the right to peaceful protests. The Commission also condemns in the strongest terms the prevention by the military of access by emergency medical personnel who sought to provide medical assistance and rescue those who sustained injuries during the operation by the military unit.

The Commission underscores that the resort to undue use of force against protesters, in the current context of expression of outrage by protesters against the perpetration of brutalities and abuse by law enforcement and security institutions, only exacerbates an already tense situation and cannot be the answer to the legitimate demands of protestors for an end to police brutalities, for accountability, and for reform of security institutions and governance in Nigeria.

The Commission is also concerned that criminal actors and other opportunist elements may exploit the situation, thereby endangering the peace and stability of Nigeria if the situation is not resolved urgently through amicable process within the framework of applicable human rights standards and principles. The Commission notes with serious concern the escalation of acts of violence, incidents of lootings and attacks on property by non-state actors taking advantage of the prevailing tense situation in the context of the protest that has been ongoing since early October.

The Commission welcomes the steps taken by Nigerian authorities. The Commission encourages the Government of Nigeria to build on the steps it has taken earlier, including the dissolution of SARS and announcements of the establishment of commissions of inquiry both at Federal and States levels, for listening to the voices of the protesting youth and addressing their grievances. While the Commission recognizes the need for upholding law and order, it underscores the human rights imperative of ensuring that force is used only as a last resort measure and in compliance with the principles of proportionality and necessity.

Given the deterioration of the situation in Nigeria, the Commission calls on the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to:
1. Take immediate action against the military unit that was involved in the use of live ammunition against protestors and initiate urgently transparent and independent investigation into the reported excessive use of force that led to death and injury at Lekki Toll Gate in Lagos;
2. Take further appropriate measures for the de-escalation of the situation by withdrawing military forces deployed for policing the situation and end the use of the military forces in the enforcement of curfews;
3. Heed the call by the Commission and others for ensuring that security institutions do not resort to the use lethal force as a means of policing protests and carry out the policing of assemblies and enforcement of law and order in full compliance with the principles of minimum use of force as a last resort measure, necessity, precaution and proportionality as provided for in the Commission’s Guidelines on Freedom of Association and Assembly;
4. Initiate a process for amicable resolution of the situation by giving due hearing to the voices of the protesting youth and based on applicable human rights standards and principles as a necessary measure for averting any threat to the peace and security of Nigeria and depriving criminal actors and other opportunist elements from exploiting the situation to the detriment of the stability of Nigeria; and

5. Implement the measures for comprehensive reform of law enforcement and security institutions in Nigeria proposed in the Commission’s statement of 14 October 2020 based on consultation with all relevant stakeholders, including the youth and civil society, with a view to make the laws, doctrine, training and practice of law enforcement and security institutions conform with human rights norms.
The Commission reiterates its readiness to accompany Nigeria in its effort to ensure compliance with the standards of the African Charter by its law enforcement institutions.

Commissioner Solomon Ayele Dersso
Country Rapporteur for the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Commissioner Maria Teresa Manuela
Special Rapporteur on Prisons, Conditions of Detention and Policing in Africa

Commissioner Ndiamé Gaye
Chairperson of the Working Group on Death Penalty, Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Killings and Enforced Disappearances in Africa
22 October 2020

Category: Media statement

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Commission), through the Country Rapporteur for the United Republic of Tanzania, Commissioner Solomon Ayele Dersso, the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, Commissioner Jamesina King, and the Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Defenders and Focal Point on Reprisals in Africa, Commissioner Rémy Ngoy Lumbu, is following the situation in the United Republic of Tanzania relating to recent developments affecting various areas of human and peoples’ rights in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and in the lead-up to the 2020 national elections.

The Commission is concerned by the amendment of the Basic Rights and Duties (Enforcement) Act (Cap. 3 of the Revised Laws of Tanzania) in June 2020, which restricts the filing of cases before Tanzanian courts in the interest of the public. This goes against the progressive constitutional right of every person to take legal action to ensure the protection of the Constitution and the laws of the land.

The African Commission’s Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Fair Trial and Legal Assistance in Africa of 2000, stipulate that States must ensure that any individual, group of individuals or nongovernmental organization is entitled to bring a human right claim before a judicial body for determination, because such claims are matters of public concern. The removal of public interest litigation represents a major regression, that reverses the implementation by Tanzania of an important means of protecting constitutional democracy and a key avenue for securing the rights of vulnerable groups lacking the capacity and financial resources to bring their own cases before the courts.

The Commission also wishes to express its concern about reports reaching it, highlighting undue limitations on civil society, journalists and the media, including the prolonged detention in remand of accused journalists. In this respect, the Commission is particularly concerned about the reported revocation in June 2020 of the operating license of Tanzania Daima newspaper, the suspension of Kwanza Online TV in July 2020 for 11 months for reporting on the country’s COVID-19 situation and the prohibition of local languages from being used in broadcasting media.

The Commission reiterates that the right to information that forms part of Article 9 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) is critical in the effort to contain the COVID-19 pandemic as underscored in ACHPR Resolution 449. The Commission further confirms the right of groups to use of their language, and that limitations may only be placed on expressions of hate speech and incitement to violence, but not on the language of communication.

The Commission is also concerned by reports of threats to and intimidation of opposition politicians, including in the context of the electoral process. The Commission in this regard reaffirms the right of every citizen under Article 13 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter), to participate freely in the government of his or her country, either directly or through freely chosen representatives. As pointed out in its Statement on Elections in Africa during the COVID-19 Pandemic of 22 July 2020, people should have full guarantees to be able to express their sovereign will by participating freely in the electoral process. The existence of an even playing field that allows all parties and candidates to campaign for and seek the vote of the electorate is also critical for free and fair elections that are in accordance with Articles 13 and 20 of the African Charter.
In this regard, the Commission:
1.Urges the Government of Tanzania to reverse both the amendment of the Basic Rights and Duties (Enforcement) Act (Cap. 3 of the Revised Laws of Tanzania) in line with the African Commission’s Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Fair Trial and Legal Assistance in Africa, and the law that imposes a blanket ban on the use of local languages for broadcasting media;

2.Calls on the Government of Tanzania to allow democratically elected leaders in opposition parties to fulfil their democratic functions free from undue restrictions and to ensure that all the necessary safeguards are in place for conducting the elections, both in protecting the health and safety of voters, officials and observers, and in ensuring that the elections are conducted in a free environment in which the electorate can express its will freely and all candidates are guaranteed an even playing field to freely campaign for and seek the vote of the electorate;
3.Requests the Government of Tanzania to ensure that regulatory measures and actions of State agents are in accord with the right to freedom of expression and access to information under Article 9 of the African Charter as elaborated in the Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information in Africa; and
4.Calls on the Government of Tanzania to ensure that the right to a fair trial within a reasonable time and before an impartial tribunal, as required by Article 7 (d) of the African Charter is duly complied with.
5.The Commission remains actively seized of the human rights situation in Tanzania leading up to the national elections on 28 October 2020.

Commissioner Solomon Ayele Dersso,
Chairperson of the Commission and Country Rapporteur for the United Republic of Tanzania

Commissioner Jamesina King,
Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information

Commissioner Rémy Ngoy Lumbu,
Vice Chairperson of the Commission and Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Defenders and Focal Point on Reprisals in Africa

Category: Media statement

#Your Robust Voice # End Violence, Conflicts, Wars, Prevention of Genocide!
Africa Human Rights Day is observed annually in October to mark the entry into force of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (African Charter) adopted in June 1981. The African Charter entered into force on 21 October 1986 making it a legally binding human rights instrument to State Parties after ratification and enforceable at national level. This date was declared as the Africa Human Rights Day by the African Union (formerly Organisation of African Unity, OAU). As we observe this milestone achievement, the AU Theme for 2020 is Silencing the Guns. This is aligned to the AU Agenda 2063 to end wars, civil conflicts, gender based violence and prevention of genocide in the Continent.

It is also a year that marks the end of the African Women’s Decade from 2010-2020 on Grassroots Approach to Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment. We are reflecting on how the AU theme of silencing the guns has impacted on people’s lives at local level and if Africa Human Rights system is making progress in transforming the people of this continent from conflict to realisation of human dignity, peace, justice, accountability, equality from the grass roots. Guns have maimed, murdered, destroyed livelihoods of our people. How is Silencing of Guns, African Women Decade on Women will make meaning impact in ending wars, conflicts and prevent genocide when;

•DRC is going through a silent holocaust while the world watches!
•Nigeria, soldiers are shooting at peaceful protesters while the world watches!
•Cameroon, Anglophone Cameroonians are slain by the government security agents while the word watches!
•South Africa, there is disproportionate corruption, human trafficking, gender-based violence and femicide. Am I next? are you next?!!!!
•Zimbabwe, there is exacerbation of torture, forced disappearances, persecution of civil society activists, human rights defenders, journalist, corruption, irrational judiciary with impunity, while the world watches.

•Zambia is sliding towards authoritarianism, corruption, rising censorship, crackdown on free speech and oppositions of public activities. There is also excessive use of force in quelling any form of protest by the state security agents, while the world watches.
•Tanzania the disturbing pre-election violence, persecution of citizens, HRDs and journalists.
•Mozambique, the mysterious and faceless insurgency causing internal displacements, cruelty and homelessness in Cabo Delgado province in the northern Mozambique. While the world watches and the President of the country is the current Chairperson of the SADC.
African citizens, the tax payers contributing to economy of their countries are suffering in a bleeding continent, because of the senseless war crimes, crimes against humanity that can be described as genocide!

Justice for Africa! Enough is Enough!


Category: Media statement

16 June 2020

The June month is dedicated to commemoration of the SOWETO uprising that took place on 16 June 1976. It was led by school children protesting against the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction in South African Schools by the apartheid regime. The apartheid regime enforced a separate development system to maintain supremacy of the minority over the majority. This was with a view to sustain segregation, suppression of political right for black people, inequality, promotion of inhuman and degrading treatment of black people with impunity! All laws, policies, programmes, plans and strategies promoted injustice and exclusion of the majority. The youth of 1976 are remembered for their bravery in organising a historical protest to confront a heavily armed state security with lethal grenades, tear gas, preventing them from expressing their views against inferior education system! School children across SOWETO townships joined the protest to resist lessons to be taught in Afrikaans. This dark day ended with many youth massacred, injured, arbitrarily arrested and many skipped the country in fear of reprisals, extra judicial killings targeting youth leaders and organisers of the march.

This year commemoration of the youth month coincide with efforts to combat an invisible new novel coronavirus which is affecting the global community. The government has placed the nation under lockdown with restrictive measures to contain the pandemic. These include maintenance of hygiene, regular washing of hands with safe water, soap, sanitising and social distancing. These measures are set to save lives of citizens from contacting the virus! The country completed alerts levels 5, 4 and commenced alert level 3 on 1 June 2020. Although this level eased some regulations allowing movement of people, the public is still required to observe hygiene protocols and ensure compliance to curb the virus, including washing of hands with safe water, social distancing, scanning and tracking of infected people, sanitising, especially in public & private lives. The Department of Basic Education had reported it’s preparedness and readiness to reopen schools and learners to assume classes as from 1 June 2020. However, many schools are not adequately prepared to implement the protocol set to prevent COVID 19. There are schools without infrastructure for safe water, sanitation and still using pit toilets. HURISA has been monitoring the situation closely in collaboration with it’s Human Rights Forum and Youth Economic & Social network.

A petition was issued with recommendations to DBE protect the health and well-being of all children. Dates for reopening schools has been postponed to 8 June 2020. We are concerned that many schools might not be ready to reopen on 8 June 2020 living behind many disadvantaged children from learning!

We are calling the DBE to protect the rights of all children in South Africa and prioritise the needs in disadvantaged schools particularly to ensure all school adhere to protocols adopted to curb coronavirus. Provide adequate assistance to these schools to enable them practice hygiene, including washing hands regularly with safe water and soap, sanitisers, with safe and healthy sanitation and keeping social distance to avoid overcrowding in classes.

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The global community was caught unexpected by a daunting epidemic that is plunging humanity unabated worldwide. Sadly, this invisible is spreading fast around the world by physical interaction with people, gathering of people, and movement of people. COVID 19 has claimed lives of nearly a quarter million of people. It has devastated families, destroying the sacrosanct cultural practices known to have existed for many generations performed to honour the dead and to pay last respects. It has overwhelmed health systems, institutions, health workers, scientists, physicians, and pharmacists. The ongoing scenarios are holding the world at ransom. It has left world leaders with difficult decisions to make for saving lives. The commercial activities of countries are heavily overburdened and business is intensively affected. With movement of people constrained. Spirits are low, worship in churches, temples, mosques is prohibited, and schools are closed even sports. Only a few qualifying as essential service providers are permitted to open.

The pandemic impacts severely on livelihoods in vulnerable communities mostly surviving as informal traders. They face further risks in working in insecure environments with no fringe benefits like thirteenth cheques or bonuses, insurance, medical health care, pension fund or housing. It is an area where the true meaning of survival of the fittest and living from hand to mouth is a lived experience. It is sad that the harsh environments in which income is generated mostly affect Africans who voted African leadership in power. This picture is always dismissed by shifting blame on the legacy of economic inequalities. The question is how many billions and trillions of Rands meant for uplifting Africans disappeared under the noses of our own government with living conditions having worsened in communities, townships and the constantly mushrooming squatter camps. There is no way that workers living in such deplorable conditions can contribute to the wellbeing of people, including protecting their lives and practicing hygiene.

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Category: Media statement

Human Rights Day – 21 March

Theme for Year 2020: Unity, Socio Economic Renewal and Nation Building

21 March is acknowledged as a National Human Rights Day in South Africa. This day has contributed immensely to the history of human rights in South Africa’s. The historical impetus of this day is dedicated to the freedom fighter that sacrificed their lives against the apartheid regime and segregated system that divided people by race & color. Their bravery was demonstrated 60 years ago, on 21 March 1960 when police open fire and massacred 69 people and 150 injured for peaceful protests against “pass laws” which violated their human dignity. This law enforced severe restrictions of movement of African people, then referred to as the natives, required to carry passbooks- known as “dom pass” whenever found outside the homelands or apartheid designated areas. This became the first state of emergency to be declared in South Africa amid violence, arbitrary arrests, police shooting and tear gassing in black townships throughout the country. This massacre made international headlines as the ANC and former President Nelson Mandela were banned from speaking in public. It was only in 1994 when Constitutional democracy guaranteed the citizens freedom of association, assembly and expression. Human Rights Institute of South Africa – HURISA will join the rest of the country to remember the huge price paid by the Sharpeville freedom stalwart’s for our hard earned democracy. The Constitution also safeguard economic and social rights which unfortunately still remain a major struggle of the poor even in the new human rights dispensation.

View Full Report

Sona SA

Dear His Excellency President Ramaphosa

Human Rights Institute of South Africa is honoured to address this letter to you for your kind consideration in your 2020 State of the Nation address on Thursday, 13, February 2020.

First and foremost, HURISA congratulate you Mr President on your inauguration as the Chairperson of the African Union. Indeed, this is a prestigious position which needs the country to rally behind you in ensuring achievement of the AU Agenda 2063 and complementary objectives during your tenor and to leave behind an insightful legacy that will take South Africa and the African Union to new high.

We also wish to express our admiration for the milestone South Africa achieved in becoming a Non-permanent Member at United Nations Security Council from 2019-2021 and for South Africa’s Chairship at the UN SCR for one month in October 2019. We acknowledge the positive steps taken in the favourable vote on the Third Committee Resolution on Human Right Defenders for implementation of the United Nations Declaration on HRDs and protection of policies and mechanisms. Also for co-sponsoring the NHRI Resolution for the first time after a long advocacy of support.

Having acknowledged the outstanding milestones and distinguished roles South Africa assumes at both AU & UN, it is disappointing that our human rights performance at home remains a worrying concern. It seems the snare of corruption has deepened across board . Mechanisms and efforts to fight corruption are noted, however they seem weak and ineffective as to-date nothing has been done to prosecute the suspects of the state capture, while we praise ourselves for embracing a human rights environment which upholds the rule of law. There is a concern that despite the outstanding professionalism and integrity displayed by the State Capture Inquiry adjudication team, prosecutions remain outstanding.

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Flowers laid outside Parktown Boys’ High School

Picture: Abigail Javier/EWN

23 January 2020

Media Statement

The Human Rights Institute of South Africa (HURISA) stands in solidarity with the family of Enock Mpianzi the 13-year-old grade 8 pupil of Parktown Boys High School who died during a school orientation camp after a makeshift raft he had built with 11 other boys overturned in the Crocodile River swollen by recent rains.

About 200 pupils took part in the camp which took place at the Nyati Bush and Riverbreak lodge in the North West last week. Enock is the fourth child to drown at the lodge. The 13-year-old’s disappearance went unnoticed for 17 hours and his body was found 3km downstream a day after he was reported missing.

                  Enoch Mpianz                                                                                                   Nyati Bush and River Break Lodge                                                                                                                                                  Picture: Ahmed Kajee/EWN

HURISA is in support of the investigation carried out by the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC). We call for justice for Mpianzi and remind the public and suspects to respect the constitutional mandate of SAHRC to conduct the investigation independently without fear, favour or prejudice.

HURISA is calling on parents in South Africa to work together in ensuring protection of children and holding the school accountable for the gross negligence that led to the untimely death of Mpianzi. The constitution protects everyone not to be subjected to torture, inhumane and degrading treatment. It also safeguards the best interest of the children and defines children as anyone under the age of 18 years.

Mpianzi’s family is from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). He lived in Yeoville in Johannesburg and is a relative to one of HURISA’s staff member Cathy Elsando. May the precious soul of Enock Mpianzi rest in peace and may the Mpianzi family be comforted at their tragic loss.

For more information contact
Lindiwe Khoza
HURISA Communication and Advocacy Officer
Mobile 063 319 8346


Category: Media statement

HURISA 25th Anniversary Report 2019

The year 2019 was very important in various ways for South Africa and Human Rights Institute of South Africa. Firstly, South Africa marked 25 years of freedom as a human rights and democratic state. South Africa ascended to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) as a non-permanent member from 2019 – 2020. South Africa assumed roles as President of UNSC for a one month, in October 2019. It was also the 25th Anniversary of HURISA formation working towards defending human rights, through education & training, research and advocacy programmes. The organisation was privileged to conduct dialogues countrywide on South Africa’s human rights and democratic trajectory since 1994. This included assessment of the policy making systems and process in South Africa and scrutinized the prominence of public participation, as well as the public platforms, policy implementation, opportunities and challenges facing the country. The organisation coordinated provincial dialogues in nine provinces across the country through support from the Royal Embassy of Denmark. HURISA used the opportunity to mirror its own human rights approaches in performing functions as a human rights organisation over the years at national, regional and global levels. The organisation continue playing this important role at the grass roots level, especially in promoting protection of human rights for the most vulnerable in our society. The milestone achieved in impacting capacity building programmes, awareness raising, research studies, advocacy initiatives, public platforms, informationdissemination in diverse communities and media demonstrated a great need for more work to be done in promoting freedom of association, assembly, democracy, public participation in policy making and decision making. It was important to devise innovative ideas for constructive engagement at high levels as well as finding creative ways to sustain a culture of human rights, respect of the rule of law, peace, democracy and accountability in South Africa and beyond 25 years to come. HURISA was privileged to garner testimonies from the grass roots communities that were able to express their experiences and impressions on South Africa’s human rights and democratic society established in 1994. The organisation adopted a slogan “Celebrate What? For Who?” with the aim of enthusing robust and vibrant dialogues from diversity of participants from all levels of communities across the country

About This Report

This report provides summaries of activities undertaken to mark South Africa’s 25th anniversary of human rights and democracy. The report also outline details of activities conducted during implementation of the project, including analysis of challenges detected and contribution of recommendations collated for strengthening efforts aimed at creating a culture of human rights and consolidation of democratic ethos to the South- Africa -We -Want. The report is divided into seven parts. The first part of the report outlines the structure adopted for implementation of the project. This structure enabled smooth implementation of human rights dialogues across the country. This include; Establishment of the Reference Group, Provincial Focal Points, Hosting of Provincial Dialogues, Schedule of Provincial Dialogues and List of Provincial Focal Points. The second part of the report provides Issues that Emerged from Provincial Dialogues. The third part of the report highlights all aspects and activities Marking 25 Years of Human Rights and Democracy in South Africa i.e.; Launch of the National Report and Key Findings as Presented at the Launch of National Report. The fourth part of the report reflect the establishment of the Human Rights Forum which preceded the High Level Panel, which was followed by the Award Ceremony and Media related activities undertaken such as social media, radio and TV interviews. The fifth part showcase advocacy exercises conducted at intergovernmental structures such as the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, Pan African Parliament, National Parliament and United Nations. The sixth relates to work conducted under SDGs
auspices and contribution of recommendations. Finally, the seventh part of the report contains the Conclusion,
Acknowledgement of significant roles played by various individuals and organisations during implementation of the
25th Anniversary, including, the picture collage enhancing the special memories.

To read full report/To Download Click Here

EENA REPORT SA 2015 Click Here

EENA REPORT SA 2016 Click Here

EENA REPORT SA 2018 Click Here

Category: ENA, Media statement

Media statement for immediate release

Human Rights Institute of South Africa (HURISA) turns 25 years today, 6th September 2019.
The organisation will host a High Level Panel on Tuesday, 10 September 2019, at the Constitutional Court, in Johannesburg to mark its 25th Anniversary.
HURISA transformed in 1994 after existing as the Institute for the Study of Public Violence, and serving as the research and documentation arm of the Goldstone Commission of Inquiry – Chaired by Judge Richard Goldstone.
To this end, HURISA remains a preferred partner of choice in promoting human rights, peace and democracy in South Africa and beyond.
The organisation contributed immensely towards the adoption of Regulations of Gatherings Act in 1993, and serves as a Support Group Member on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, established by the African Commission on Humana and People’s Rights.
The High Level Panel is the first of its kind to be hosted by HURISA with the theme *“A Country in Crisis: Taking Voices from the Ground to Action.”*
Recognition of historical foundation of selfless efforts will be acknowledged to individuals and organisations that continue to make a difference to HURISA and the community. Speakers include prominent figures such as the former Chairperson of the Goldstone Commission of Inquiry, Retired Judge, Richard Goldstone; Former Commissioner, Advocate Solly Sithole SC and Lead Council and Evidence Leader , Advocate Johan du Toit; Deputy Director NPA, His Excellency Ambassador Tobias Elling Rehfeld of the Royal Danish Embassy; and Her Excellency, Ms Astrid Emilie Helle; Justice Jody Kollapen; Advocate Pansy Tlakula, Chairperson of the Information Regulator; Dr Zonke Majodina HURISA Board Member and former UN Human Rights Committee Member & Deputy Chairperson of the SAHRC, Commissioner Mohamed Shafie Ameermia and Dr Marjory Jobson, the Khulumani Support Group Executive Director and Former CRL Commissioner.

HURISA looks forward to more impactful programmes and continuous partnership in the human rights space.
For more details please contact:,, Tel 011 492 1103, Cell 072 358 8611

Category: Media statement